The main problem with idolatry is that the more golden and shiny the idol is, the more I like to see myself in it’s reflection. The thing we idolize is never the object of our true affection, rather it is in our worship of such and such a thing that we find that our real idol is and always has been ourselves.
The golden calf was not the first time people had created something appealing to them to serve their needs, and it obviously wasn’t the last. Viewing the state as an idol is just a result of having a democratic society in which everyone got to throw their gold in the pile. We will always find a way to do this.
It is important for Christians to remember that every form of government gets to an altar sooner or later. Some governments even become the altar themselves, but only Christ laid on the altar.